Methods of making and aging wines have experienced worldwide a spectacular evolution since the sixties, introducing new concepts such as the effective control of the harvest, the monitoring of primary aromas of the fruit or the order and hygiene in cellar. The introduction and assimilation of these new methods in Spain has been such that many of the most modern wineries in Europe are currently in Spain.
But the various methods of processing of each type of wine must take into account, before application, important aspects that will influence the final result:
Vintage. The process of harvesting is usually done in late August-early September and mid-October, when the fruit has acquired the desired degree of maturation. Its importance is vital because during the harvest the first selection of the fruit is done: the success of all subsequent wine depend largely on the correctness with which they carry out this process.
Similarly, the transfer of the vineyard to the winery must be done with great care in order that the grapes do not suffer excessive pressures. If the grapes deteriorates or breaks, a loss of juice would occur, which would result in undesirable premature fermentation.
The color of the wine. The vast majority of the grapes used in winemaking has the same color in its pulp, regardless of the type of grape that is: colorless to slightly yellowish. The coloring pigments that characterize, for example, red grapes are practically always in the skin (skin). Therefore, the development of red wines is imperative that this coloring matter in the skins is transferred to the whole mass of must. This simple condition marks the main difference in the production of red and white wines.
Removing the wort. Before beginning the process of drawing depending on the wine to be obtained, the grape is subjected to a process that is common to all types: juice extraction. Clusters from vintage are discharged into a container in the form of truncated pyramid called receiving hopper from where it is transported to the crusher. There, the fruit undergoes a rupture pressure, a process known as crushed and that must be done accurately so they will not tear or break the hard vegetable cluster elements as seeds, stalks or stalks (vegetable cluster structure) and skins. These ingredients contaminate the juice with undesirable odors and flavors, it will increase its acid content. In the case of wine intended for the production of red wine to eliminate scratches procedure is performed.
The crushing a viscous paste of mashed grape pulps, broken skins, seeds and stalks emerges. No more tears occur without contact with air so that it does not perform a premature and unwanted fermentation, this paste is transferred to a series of dams, beginning the process of developing the type of wine to be obtained.